Descriptive statistics are a set of technologies (ie, formulas and procedures) used for describing mathematical properties of a database (eg, factor analysis of all variables in a dataset) or part thereof (eg, central tendency of particular variables).

As a dataset is always specific to a particular group, descriptive statistics are also bound to such particular group. This means that descriptive statistics can always say something about such group, independently of whether the data is usable further or not. That is, these statistics always 'describe' properties of the particular group under research (eg, of a sample). They are often used for assessing the quality of the data in the dataset and, thus, for ascertaining if it is appropriate to continue further into using inferential statistics^{2}.

Illustration 1 offers a snapshot of typical descriptive statistics.

Illustration 1. Descriptive statistics | |||
---|---|---|---|

Univariate | |||

Type of analysis | nominal | ordinal | interval |

Central tendency | mode | median | mean |

Dispersion | modal dispersion | SQR, SPR | standard deviation |

~ | variation ratio | IQR, IPR | variance |

Graphs | pictograph | stem-and-leaf | histogram |

~ | bar graph | line graph | error bar |

~ | pie chart | box-and-whisker | |

Asymmetry | --- | rank skewness | skewness |

Peakness | --- | --- | kurtosis |

Location | --- | percentile | z-scores |

Bivariate | |||

Type of analysis | nominal | ordinal | interval |

Correlation | --- | rho | r |

Multivariate | |||

Type of analysis | nominal | ordinal | interval |

Grouping | --- | cluster analysis | principal component analysis |

~ | --- | --- | factor analysis |

**AUTHOR (date work).**

*Title.*Reference location, date publication. ISBN/ISSN.

**Notes**+++

# Want to know more?

**Wiki of Science - Inferential statistics**- This page provides access to other statistic technologies used for making inferences from a sample to a population.

# Contributors to this page

## Editor

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