|[Data]||[<Normal page] [PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2012). Simulation: nutritional balance of breakfast meals. Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2012, pages 152-154.]|
Breakfast meals' BNI (simulation)
This article presents the results of a simulation on the nutritional balance of breakfast meals, carried out as part of a research on the nutritional composition of breakfast in New Zealand. A breakfast meal is understood as a combination of breakfast cereals with water6, milk, non-dairy milk or yogurt.
Illustration 1 collates the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) for each simulated meal. Although all meals balanced out at least one ingredient, only 53% of the meals improved the nutritional balance of both ingredients. Non-dairy milks produced more balanced meals, overall, followed by natural yogurt and non-flavored dairy milk. Among yogurts and milk, low-fat options (but not fat-free ones) were the most balanced of all. Meanwhile, flavored milks and yogurts might have become more balanced as part of a meal but were poorer options than unflavored ones. Regardless of above, an oat meal made with water (eg, porridge) was the most balanced breakfast meal in the simulation, and oats resulted in more balanced meals when using any milk, non-dairy milk or yogurt than any other breakfast cereals.
|Illustration 1: BNI of breakfast meals (simulation)|
|Low-fat natural yogurt||150g||54.72||18.51||30.42||26.64||36.87||41.22||51.85|
|Low-fat flavored soymilk||250ml||64.29||34.20||42.11||41.61||50.13||53.34||56.39|
|Standard natural yogurt||150g||67.50||25.72||33.44||32.06||42.23||45.76||51.93|
|Creamy natural yogurt||150g||77.49||37.10||42.10||43.16||51.84||55.36||59.64|
|Standard cow milk||250ml||88.42||43.23||47.94||49.68||57.29||60.09||65.21|
|Fat-free flavored yogurt||150g||90.26||27.57||38.50||36.82||49.56||53.84||68.05|
|Low-fat flavored yogurt||150g||91.56||44.83||51.79||53.70||64.10||67.29||74.12|
|Semi-skimmed cow milk||250ml||92.68||31.93||40.57||39.90||49.38||52.97||64.95|
|Standard flavored soy yogurt||150g||92.90||49.98||54.81||58.28||67.49||71.06||74.53|
|Creamy flavored yogurt||150g||94.19||46.09||50.10||52.75||61.41||64.88||71.11|
|Standard flavored yogurt||150g||95.20||46.41||50.40||53.12||61.81||65.28||71.71|
|Semi-skimmed flavored cow milk||250ml||101.11||51.57||56.95||59.36||66.94||69.73||77.20|
|Standard flavored cow milk||250ml||104.13||56.73||59.60||63.30||69.96||72.78||77.99|
|Skimmed cow milk||250ml||122.85||40.70||47.02||51.12||58.37||62.14||84.88|
|Fat-free natural yogurt||150g||125.80||33.50||43.65||44.29||56.80||61.02||85.78|
|(White cells show improved BNIs for one ingredient; grey cells show improved BNIs for both ingredients )|
The initial research sample included average nutrition data for 6 categories of breakfast cereals (see Perezgonzalez, 20125) and 20 types of non-dairy milks, dairy milks and yogurts (see Perezgonzalez, 2011b2, 2011c3, 2011d4).
Materials & analysis
Relevant data were used to run a simulation combining ingredients to make a meal according to the following parameters:
- a serving of 250ml of milk or non-dairy milk, or a serving of 150g of yogurt, as first ingredient
- a serving of cereals amounting to approximately 1 cup as second ingredient.
The resulting meal was then assessed using the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) technology (see Perezgonzalez, 2011a1). SPSS-v18 was used for the computation of variables, including BNI and international indexes.
This simulation was based on average nutrition data per ingredient, taken from related research. It provides a reasonable assessment of nutritional balance as per the serving sizes used. Thus, the results of this study may be taken as representing the average nutritional balance of real breakfast meals.
As breakfast cereals and milks and yogurts were made in NZ or imported from Australia, the results of this study may be generalizable to the following populations (in order of decreasing generalization power):
- Internationally, if one assumes breakfast cereals, milks and yogurts to be of approximately similar nutritional composition anywhere.
Want to know more?
- BNI™ database
- The database offers individual nutrition analyses for foods, including the ingredients referred to in above article.
- Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of breakfast cereals
- This Wiki of Science page collates information about breakfast cereals, and provides useful links to the appropiate files.
- Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of milk and yogurt types
- This Wiki of Science page collates information about milk, non-dairy milk and yogurt, and provides useful links to the appropiate files.
Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2012). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalez).