20111022 - Nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk (2011)

[Data] [<Normal page] [PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011). Nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk (2011). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 144-147.]

Semi-skimmed milk BNI - 2011

Perezgonzalez re-assessed the nutritional balance of semi-skimmed milk in 20112, following on the steps of a similar study done in 20081. Both data were collected as part of a research on the nutritional balance of milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand.

In 2011, semi-skimmed cow milk had, on average, a nutritional balance of BNI 92.68s4, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar. The average semi-skimmed cow milk was also adequate in fat and sodium, high in protein and saturated fat, and low in carbohydrate and fiber. It also provided about 131mg of calcium per 100ml.

Illustration 1: Nutrition information (semi-skimmed milk)
BNI 92.68s 0.00
Food, 100ml 2011 Ideal
Protein 3.6 2.3
Carbohydrate 4.9 6.4
Sugar 4.9 < 1.2
Fat 1.4 1.3
Saturated fat 0.9 < 0.5
Fiber 0.1 0.7
Sodium 0.043 < 0.047
Kcal 46.6 46.6
kJul 195.0 195.0
Illustration 2: Nutritional profile (semi-skimmed milk)
55%
50%
45%
40% *
35% *
30% * *
25% * * *
20% * * *
15% * * *
10% * * *
5% * * *
mid p c f fb
max s sf na
5% * *
10% * *
15% * *
20% *
25% *
30% *
35% *
40% *
ideal % = grey cells; actual % = asterisk (*)

International standards

Semi-skimmed milk appeared as highly unbalanced according to international Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs), although it was rather moderately unbalanced according to US and Canadian standards.

Illustration 3: Nutritional balance across international RDIs
Semi-skimmed milk (diet) 92.68 112.62 50.90 92.71 76.66
Product 100ml Company BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
Meadow Fresh Pre-Bio Goodman Fielder 86.99 106.67 48.34 87.17 73.93
Home Brand lite milk Progressive 89.64 109.64 47.32 89.64 73.32
Meadow Fresh lite Goodman Fielder 89.64 109.64 47.32 89.64 73.32
Meadow Fresh Calci strong lite Goodman Fielder 93.28 113.28 43.28 93.28 69.28
Anchor Lite Fonterra 93.43 113.43 54.48 93.43 80.48
Anchor Lite (UHT) Fonterra 93.43 113.43 54.48 93.43 80.48
Pams slim Pams 93.78 113.78 54.15 93.78 80.15
Lactose Free Milk low fat Liddells 99.03 119.03 55.26 99.03 81.26
Anchor Simply Organic low fat Fonterra 103.62 123.62 59.12 103.58 85.12
Pams slim (UHT) Pams 112.25 132.25 67.66 112.11 93.66
(Source: Perezgonzalez, 2011a2)

Correlations between indexes were positive, and tended to be high between pairs of international indexes.

Illustration 4: Correlations between RDIs
(n=10) BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ
WHO 1.000
(p) .000
US/CAN .883 .882
(p) .001 .001
AUS/NZ 1.000 1.000 .884
(p) .000 .000 .001
UK .887 .885 1.000 .887
(p) .001 .001 .000 .001

Methods

Research approach

The original research was an exploratory study for describing the nutritional balance of milk in New Zealand in 2011. It was a follow-up of a similar study done in 20081.

Sample

The initial research sample included 68 milk products (ie, standard, semi-skimmed, skimmed, and flavored)2. The food products were collected in a convenient manner, looking more for a variety of brands than a random sampling of the same. The results in this study simply describe the 'subsample' of semi-skimmed cow milk products within the original sample: ie, 10 brands of semi-skimmed milk.

Materials & analysis

Milk products were purchased from local supermarket chains in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Nutrition information for each milk product was retrieved from the nutrition information panel on each item, to be assessed using the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) technology (see Perezgonzalez, 2011b3). SPSS-v16 was used for variable computations, including BNI and international indexes, and statistical analysis, which included descriptives and correlations.

Generalization potential

Most of the products were produced locally, although some may have been imported or exported, especially from and to Australia, respectively. Thus, the results of this study may be generalizable to the following populations (in order of decreasing generalization power):

  • Australia.
  • Internationally, if one assumes milk products to be of approximately similar nutritional composition anywhere.
References
1. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2008). Milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand in 2007-2008. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 3. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
2. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011a). White gold. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 6. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
3. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011b). Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 20-21. Also retrievable from Wiki of Science.
+++ Footnotes +++
4. This was the dietBNI. The foodBNI, based on the sample's median, was 93.43s.

Want to know more?

BNI™ database
The database offers individual nutrition analyses for foods, including those referred to in above article.
BNI™ journal (2011, issue 6) - White gold
This issue of the Balanced Nutrition Index™ journal collates all BNI™ nutrition information for the original sample in a single book.
Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of foods
This Wiki of Science page collates information about several foods on a single page and provides useful links to the appropiate files.

Author

Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2011). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalezJDPerezgonzalez).


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