20111021 - Nutritional balance of skimmed milk (2011)

[Data] [<Normal page] [PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011). Nutritional balance of skimmed milk (2011). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 140-143.]

Skimmed milk BNI - 2011

Perezgonzalez re-assessed the nutritional balance of skimmed milk in 20112, following on the steps of a similar study done in 20081. Both data were collected as part of a research on the nutritional balance of milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand.

In 2011, skimmed cow milk had, on average, a nutritional balance of BNI 122.85s4, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of sugar. The average skimmed cow milk was also adequate in total carbohydrates, low in saturated fat, high in protein and sodium, and low in fat and fiber. It also provided about 147mg of calcium per 100ml.

Illustration 1: Nutrition information (skimmed milk)
BNI 122.85s 0.00
Food, 100ml 2011 Ideal
Protein 4.0 1.9
Carbohydrate 5.1 5.3
Sugar 5.1 < 1.0
Fat 0.2 1.1
Saturated fat 0.1 < 0.4
Fiber 0.0 0.6
Sodium 0.045 < 0.038
Kcal 38.2 38.2
kJul 159.8 159.8
Illustration 2: Nutritional profile (skimmed milk)
55% *
50% *
45% *
40% * *
35% * *
30% * *
25% * *
20% * *
15% * *
10% * *
5% * * *
mid p c f fb
max s sf na
5% *
10% *
15% *
20% *
25% *
30% *
35% *
40% *
45% *
50% *
55% *
ideal % = grey cells; actual % = asterisk (*)

International standards

Skimmed milk appeared as extremely unbalanced according to international Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs).

Illustration 3: Nutritional balance across international RDIs
Skimmed milk (diet) 122.85 142.85 72.55 122.55 100.55
Product 100ml Company BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
Anchor Trim (North Island) Fonterra 109.58 129.58 59.31 109.31 87.31
Home Brand trim milk Progressive Enterprises 109.58 129.58 59.31 109.31 87.31
Meadow Fresh trim (North Island) Goodman Fielder 109.58 129.58 59.31 109.31 87.31
Meadow Fresh trim (South Island) Goodman Fielder 113.30 133.30 63.01 113.01 91.01
Home Brand skim milk (UHT) Woolworths 122.28 142.28 71.99 121.99 99.99
Anchor Calci+ Fonterra 124.03 144.03 73.97 123.97 101.97
Meadow Fresh Calci Trim (North Island) Goodman Fielder 124.93 144.93 74.54 124.54 102.54
Lactose Free Milk skim Liddells 126.41 146.41 76.34 126.34 104.34
Anchor skim milk powder Fonterra 126.91 146.91 76.74 126.74 104.74
Anchor Super Trim Fonterra 127.15 147.15 76.86 126.86 104.86
Budget milk extra slim Safeway Traders 127.16 147.16 76.88 126.88 104.88
Pams extra slim Pams 127.16 147.16 76.88 126.88 104.88
Home Brand skim milk powder Progressive Enterprises 127.26 147.26 76.97 126.97 104.97
Anchor Trim (South Island) Fonterra 127.31 147.31 77.01 127.01 105.01
Anchor Trim (UHT) Fonterra 127.31 147.31 77.01 127.01 105.01
Lactose Free Milk high calcium skim Liddells 127.77 147.77 77.77 127.77 105.77
Meadow Fresh Calci Trim (South Island) Goodman Fielder 128.88 148.88 78.49 128.49 106.49
Pams skim milk powder Pams 131.76 151.76 81.76 131.76 109.76
(Source: Perezgonzalez, 2011a2)

Correlations between indexes were positive, and tended to be high between pairs of international indexes.

Illustration 4: Correlations between RDIs
(n=18) BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ
WHO 1.000
(p) .000
US/CAN 1.000 1.000
(p) .000 .000
AUS/NZ 1.000 1.000 1.000
(p) .000 .000 .000
UK 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
(p) .000 .000 .000 .000

Methods

Research approach

The original research was an exploratory study for describing the nutritional balance of milk in New Zealand in 2011. It was a follow-up of a similar study done in 20081.

Sample

The initial research sample included 68 milk products (ie, standard, semi-skimmed, skimmed, and flavored)2. The food products were collected in a convenient manner, looking more for a variety of brands than a random sampling of the same. The results in this study simply describe the 'subsample' of skimmed cow milk products within the original sample: ie, 18 brands of skimmed milk.

Materials & analysis

Milk products were purchased from local supermarket chains in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Nutrition information for each milk product was retrieved from the nutrition information panel on each item, to be assessed using the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) technology (see Perezgonzalez, 2011b3). SPSS-v16 was used for variable computations, including BNI and international indexes, and statistical analysis, which included descriptives and correlations.

Generalization potential

Most of the products were produced locally, although some may have been imported or exported, especially from and to Australia, respectively. Thus, the results of this study may be generalizable to the following populations (in order of decreasing generalization power):

  • Australia.
  • Internationally, if one assumes milk products to be of approximately similar nutritional composition anywhere.
References
1. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2008). Milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand in 2007-2008. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 3. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
2. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011a). White gold. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 6. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
3. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011b). Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 20-21. Also retrievable from Wiki of Science.
+++ Footnotes +++
4. This was the dietBNI. The foodBNI, based on the sample's median, was 126.91s.

Want to know more?

BNI™ database
The database offers individual nutrition analyses for foods, including those referred to in above article.
BNI™ journal (2011, issue 6) - White gold
This issue of the Balanced Nutrition Index™ journal collates all BNI™ nutrition information for the original sample in a single book.
Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of foods
This Wiki of Science page collates information about several foods on a single page and provides useful links to the appropiate files.

Author

Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2011). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalezJDPerezgonzalez).


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