20111020 - Nutritional balance of standard milk (2011)

[Data] [<Normal page] [PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011). Nutritional balance of standard milk (2011). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 136-139.]

Standard milk BNI - 2011

Perezgonzalez re-assessed the nutritional balance of standard milk in 20112, following on the steps of a similar study done in 20081. Both data were collected as part of a research on the nutritional balance of milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand.

In 2011, standard cow milk had, on average, a nutritional balance of BNI 88.42sf4, being particularly unbalanced towards excess of saturated fat. The average standard cow milk was also adequate in protein and sodium, high in sugar and fat, and low in carbohydrate and fiber. It also provided about 129mg of calcium per 100ml.

Illustration 1: Nutrition information (standard milk)
BNI 88.42sf 0.00
Food, 100ml 2011 Ideal
Protein 3.4 3.1
Carbohydrate 4.9 8.6
Sugar 4.9 < 1.6
Fat 3.3 1.7
Saturated fat 2.2 < 0.7
Fiber 0.0 0.9
Sodium 0.043 < 0.063
Kcal 62.9 62.9
kJul 263.2 263.2
Illustration 2: Nutritional profile (standard milk)
55%
50%
45% *
40% *
35% *
30% * *
25% * *
20% * * *
15% * * *
10% * * *
5% * * *
mid p c f fb
max s sf na
5% * *
10% * *
15% * *
20% * *
25% * *
30% * *
ideal % = grey cells; actual % = asterisk (*)

International standards

Standard milk appeared as highly unbalanced according to international Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDIs), although rather moderately unbalanced according to US and Canadian standards.

Illustration 3: Nutritional balance across international RDIs
Standard milk (diet) 88.42 101.67 58.42 88.42 84.42
Product 100ml Company BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
Pams whole milk powder Pams 82.91 95.42 52.91 82.91 78.91
Meadow Fresh Calci Strong original Goodman Fielder 86.07 97.83 56.07 86.07 82.07
Home Brand full cream milk (UHT) Woolworths 86.08 99.62 56.08 86.08 82.08
Meadow Fresh Organic original Goodman Fielder 86.33 97.32 56.33 86.33 82.33
Meadow Fresh Farmhouse Goodman Fielder 86.46 93.36 53.60 83.60 79.60
Pams standard (UHT) Pams 86.83 99.39 56.83 86.83 82.83
Home Brand standard milk Progressive 86.85 97.58 56.85 86.85 82.85
Meadow Fresh original Goodman Fielder 86.85 97.58 56.85 86.85 82.85
Anchor Super Blue Fonterra 88.06 108.06 45.95 88.06 71.95
Lactose Free Milk full cream Liddells 89.93 99.68 59.93 89.93 85.93
Anchor Blue Fonterra 90.00 101.22 60.00 90.00 86.00
Anchor Blue Top (UHT) Fonterra 90.00 101.22 60.00 90.00 86.00
Anchor whole milk powder Fonterra 90.93 104.38 60.93 90.93 86.93
Budget milk standard Safeway Traders 92.09 104.33 62.09 92.09 88.09
Home Brand full cream milk powder Progressive 92.63 101.30 62.63 92.63 88.63
Lactose Free Milk high calcium semi-skim Liddells 92.70 112.70 62.33 92.70 88.33
Anchor Mega Fonterra 93.36 113.36 48.61 93.36 74.61
Anchor Simply Organic standard Fonterra 94.51 107.02 64.51 94.51 90.51
Anchor Silver Top Fonterra 94.80 105.03 64.80 94.80 90.80
(Source: Perezgonzalez, 2011a2)

Correlations between indexes were positive, and tended to be moderate to high between pairs of international indexes, except for the pairs WHO and US/CAN, and WHO and UK, which showed almost no correlation between them.

Illustration 4: Correlations between RDIs
(n=19) BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ
WHO .757
(p) .000
US/CAN .551 .061
(p) .014 .805
AUS/NZ .984 .785 .558
(p) .000 .000 .013
UK .551 .061 1.000 .558
(p) .014 .805 .000 .013

Methods

Research approach

The original research was an exploratory study for describing the nutritional balance of milk in New Zealand in 2011. It was a follow-up of a similar study done in 20081.

Sample

The initial research sample included 68 milk products (ie, standard, semi-skimmed, skimmed, and flavored)2. The food products were collected in a convenient manner, looking more for a variety of brands than a random sampling of the same. The results in this study simply describe the 'subsample' of standard cow milk products within the original sample: ie, 19 brands of standard milk.

Materials & analysis

Milk products were purchased from local supermarket chains in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Nutrition information for each milk product was retrieved from the nutrition information panel on each item, to be assessed using the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) technology (see Perezgonzalez, 2011b3). SPSS-v16 was used for variable computations, including BNI and international indexes, and statistical analysis, which included descriptives and correlations.

Generalization potential

Most of the products were produced locally, although some may have been imported or exported, especially from and to Australia, respectively. Thus, the results of this study may be generalizable to the following populations (in order of decreasing generalization power):

  • Australia.
  • Internationally, if one assumes milk products to be of approximately similar nutritional composition anywhere.
References
1. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2008). Milk and milk alternatives in New Zealand in 2007-2008. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 3. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
2. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011a). White gold. The Balanced Nutrition Index (ISSN 1177-8849), 2011, issue 6. (Retrievable from http://www.lulu.com/spotlight/bniine).
3. PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2011b). Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™). Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2011, pages 20-21. Also retrievable from Wiki of Science.
+++ Footnotes +++
4. This was the dietBNI. The foodBNI, based on the sample's median, was 89.93sf.

Want to know more?

BNI™ database
The database offers individual nutrition analyses for foods, including those referred to in above article.
BNI™ journal (2011, issue 6) - White gold
This issue of the Balanced Nutrition Index™ journal collates all BNI™ nutrition information for the original sample in a single book.
Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of foods
This Wiki of Science page collates information about several foods on a single page and provides useful links to the appropiate files.

Author

Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2011). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalezJDPerezgonzalez).


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