Significant human factors tools for a logical idea of pilots situation awareness
Van de Merwe, Van Dijk and Zon (20111) carried out a study to explore some significant human factors (HF) tools to measure situation awareness (SA) of pilots. Eye tracking was the one of the study focus whether it was a valuable HF tool to understand how SA was gained and maintained.
The result showed that the applied HF tools did simultaneously present a coherent idea of the pilots’ SA. Assuming that looking at a definite location means being attentive to that particular location, eye tracking was found to be an effective tool to measure the critical first step of SA.
|Relationship between AoIs and period||Significant|
|PFD, compared before and after||Significant|
|ECAM, compared before and after||Not Significant|
|Relationship between the discovery period and cross-checking time||Significant (-)|
|IAS discrepancy scenario||Less significant|
• This was an exploratory study.
12 airline pilots, competent to fly Airbus A320, paired up of a captain and a first officer as a crew from Italy, Spain and Netherlands.
Design and Materials
• True experimental design was used.
• Eye tracking and online and posttrial personal, self-report ratings were employed.
• The 5-point ISA rating was used for measuring the pilots’ general idea of the situation.
• The CARS questionnaire, an assessment method derived from three-level model of SA, was used to collect data from pilots.
• A flight simulator experiment in an Airbus A 320 cockpit setting was performed. The simulator trip was about 25 minutes from London Heathrow Airport to Amsterdam Schipol Airport.
• The above three tools were to observe the pilots’ behavior while trying to solve the air speed discrepancy. The results from the tools were expected to present a more coherent idea of the pilots’ SA than the each separate measure.
• The simple rating technique that measures mental workload of pilots was employed.
• Three levels of SA were compared by using CARs outcomes whereas ISA ratings measured the pilots’ general idea of the situation.
• Pilot behavior - SA
• Eye track measure
• A malfunction scenario
• Randomness of pilots’ scanning pattern
• The personal online self-report ratings
• The personal posttrial self-report ratings
• Repeated measures analysis and paired-samples t-test were performed.
• ANOVA was performed on the accuracy of collected data. The choice of significance level was measured by alpha 5%.
• A proper effect size for the comparison between two averages measured the effect size.
• The results are generalizable to a larger population of active, professional pilots, particularly licensed to fly Airbus A320, because the tasks completed in a simulator matched normal operations.
• This research is also potentially generalizable to pilots when they have to deal with a malfunction in a simulator setting.
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- Original article
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