[PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2012). The nutritional balance of kinds of breakfast cereals. Journal of Knowledge Advancement & Integration (ISSN 1177-4576), 2012, pages 108-113.] [Printer friendly]
Nutritional balance of kinds of breakfast cereals
Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of breakfast cereals in 2012 (see b3,c4,d5,e6,f7,g8). The same data can be analysed further, to ascertain whether features such as being sold under a generic brand or having children as the target customer may (unintentionally) inform about the overall nutritional balance of above products.
Illustration 1 collates information per group within each kind of product, namely group size, as well as median and interquartile range for nutritional balance (BNI). Illustration 2 collates information about mean ranks per group, as well as tests for equality of ranked distributions for independent groups (Mann-Whitney U tests and equivalent Z areas).
|Illustration 1: Group size, medians & interquartile ranges|
|n||median||( IQR )||n||median||( IQR )|
|Children||64||37.27||( 41.31 )||15||72.65||( 48.24 )|
|Generic||63||39.51||( 49.72 )||16||36.89||( 61.00 )|
|(Medians closer to 0.0 indicate greater balance)|
According to these results, it can be concluded that:
- Cereals grouped according to having children as their customer base or not show ranked group distances so extreme that, under normal circumstances, such distances would only occur about 4 times in 100. As cereals not targeted to children have a lower median (37.27) than cereals targeted to children (72.65), it can be inferred that cereals not targeted to children are more balanced nutritionally. Indeed, the absence of such targeted marketing alone would identify some 23% of more nutritionally balanced breakfast cereals (see rho values in illustration 3).
- Cereals grouped according to whether they are marketed under a generic brand or not show ranked group distances within the expected normal range, and relatively similar medians. Thus, it can be inferred that breakfast cereals marketed under generic brands have a similar nutritional balance than breakfast cereals marketed under specific commercial brands. Therefore, this grouping is not helpful in identifying different nutritional balance among breakfast cereals.
|Illustration 2. Mann-Whitney U tests|
|Kind||m.rank 'no'||m.rank 'yes'||U||Z||( p )|
|Children||37.47||50.80||318.0||-2.03||( .043 )|
|Generic||40.10||39.59||497.5||-.08||( .937 )|
|(Mean ranks closer to 0.0 indicate greater balance. Sig ≤ .05, 2-tailed)|
Illustration 3 collates information about a multiple regression model for assessing the potential combination of both kinds of breakfast cereals groupings. The regression model (R, 'stepwise' procedure) retains only the 'targeted to children' category as a significant variable, capable of identifying the nutritional balance of about 23% of breakfast cereals in the sample. The 'usability' of such regression model for predicting the nutritional balance of breakfast cereals not in the sample is, approximately, 20% (adjusted R).
|Illustration 3. Regression model on ranked BNI|
|rho||( p )||β||( p )|
|Children||.229||( .042 )||.229||( .042 )|
|Generic||-.009||( .937 )|
|R =||.229||( .042 )|
|(Dependent variable = BNI. Sig ≤ .05, 2-tailed)|
Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2012). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalez).
Want to know more?
- BNI™ journal (2012, issue 3) - Breakfast cereals
- This issue of the Balanced Nutrition Index™ journal collates all BNI™ nutrition information for the original sample in a single book. You can also access information about each individual breakfast cereal on the BNI™ database and aggregated information on Wiki of Science (nutritional balance of food)
- Wiki of Science - Marketing claims and the nutritional balance of breakfast cereals
- Two Wiki of Science pages provide summary and detailed information, respectively, about a research related to the one here discussed.