Nutritional balance of potato chips (inferential statistics) (2e) - 2012

[PEREZGONZALEZ Jose D (2012). Nutritional balance of potato chips (inferential statistics) (2e)7. Knowledge (ISSN 2324-1624), 2013, pages 45-49.] [DOI] [Printer friendly]

BNI of potato chips (inferences)

Perezgonzalez assessed the nutritional balance of potato chips8 in 20122, as part of a research on the nutritional composition of snacks in New Zealand. This article provides inferential information about the population of products under research (foodBNI) as well as about a hypothetical diet based on those products (dietBNI).

foodBNI

The population of potato chips appears as extremely unbalanced9 (illustration 1). Indeed, it can be inferred, with a 95% degree of confidence, that the median nutritional balance is located somewhere between BNI 79.42 and BNI 85.88, and the mean a bit higher, somewhere between BNI 83.87 and BNI 89.14, thus indicative of a tendency (skewness) towards higher unbalance.

Illustration 1: Food's nutritional balance
Non-parametric BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
Median CI95 lower 79.42 79.42 67.90 67.90 67.90
Median CI95 upper 85.88 85.88 73.32 73.32 73.32
SPR lower 6.10 6.10 4.38 4.38 4.38
SPR upper 12.56 12.56 9.80 9.80 9.80
Parametric BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
Mean CI95 lower 83.87 83.87 71.22 71.22 71.22
Mean CI95 upper 89.14 89.14 75.64 75.64 75.64
SD CI95 lower 8.63 8.63 7.23 7.23 7.23
SD CI95 upper 12.29 12.29 10.31 10.31 10.31
(95% confidence interval's lower and upper bounds)

Similar nutritional profiles appear when using other international recommended dietary intakes (RDIs). Indeed, correlations between indexes are very high or perfect (illustration 2). These correlations would occur by chance less than one time in 1000, thus it can be inferred that they truly reflect an underlying relationship between international indexes.

Illustration 2: Correlations between international RDIs
r / rho BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
BNI (CI95 lower) 1.000 .840 .840 .840
BNI (CI95 upper) 1.000 .942 .942 .942
WHO (CI95 lower) 1.000 .840 .840 .840
WHO (CI95 upper) 1.000 .942 .942 .942
US/CAN (CI95 lower) .975 .975 1.000 1.000
US/CAN (CI95 upper) .991 .991 1.000 1.000
AUS/NZ (CI95 lower) .975 .975 1.000 1.000
AUS/NZ (CI95 upper) .991 .991 1.000 1.000
UK (CI95 lower) .975 .975 1.000 1.000
UK (CI95 upper) .991 .991 1.000 1.000
(95% confidence interval's lower and upper bounds)

dietBNI

As part of a hypothetical diet in which all products contributed the same weight of chips, the resulting nutritional balance would still be extremely unbalanced, with 95% confidence of it ranging somewhere between BNI 66.10 and BNI 74.29 (when fiber is estimated). However, differences in international RDIs become more apparent at this level, as this diet would "benefit" more under certain international RDIs than under others. For example, it would range between 63.17 and 71.35 under WHO's RDIs, but between 43.12 and 49.96 under UK's RDIs.

Illustration 3: Diet's nutritional balance (potato chips)
CI95 Protein Carbs Sugar Fat Sat.fat Fiber Sodium
lower 5.7 51.4** 1.4 32.1 10.5 4.4* 0.581
upper 6.1 49.8** 1.8 33.0 13.2 4.4* 0.697
CI95 International RDIs BNI WHO US/CAN AUS/NZ UK
lower (diet, fiber unest.) 80.77 80.77 67.56 67.56 67.56
upper (diet, fiber unest.) 88.95 88.95 74.41 74.41 74.41
lower (diet, fiber est.*) 66.10 63.17 53.59 54.23 43.12
upper (diet, fiber est.*) 74.29 71.35 60.44 61.07 49.96
(Nutrients per 100g; *fiber content estimated from USDA database6; **carbs' upper and lower bounds are reversed10)

In any case, the most visible differences between the lower and upper bounds of this confidence interval are the levels of saturated fat and sodium that these products provide to the diet.

Illustration 4: dietBNI CI95 lower bound
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mid p c f fb
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ideal % = grey cells; actual % = asterisk (*)
Illustration 5: dietBNI CI95 upper bound
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ideal % = grey cells; actual % = asterisk (*)

Author

Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2012). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalezJDPerezgonzalez).

Want to know more?

BNI analysis of individual products
You can access either the BNI™ database or the 'BNI™ journal (2012, issue 5) - Tasty taytos' for individual nutrition analyses of each food product in the sample.
Wiki of Science - More information about nutritional balance
Two Wiki of Science indexes provide easy access to information about foods and BNI-related topics.
Wiki of Science - Nutritional balance of potato chips (further knowledge)
Two Wiki of Science pages provide further introductory and descriptive information about the nutritional balance of potato chips.

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