Chips, crisps & cravers' BNI (inferences)
This article is a meta-analysis done on nine samples of chips7, crisps8 and cravers9 described individually in other articles (see Perezgonzalez, 2012a1_d4) but here combined for the purpose of such meta-analysis. This article provides inferential information both about the sample of products under research (foodBNI) as well as about a hypothetical diet based on those products (dietBNI).
The population of chips, crisps & cravers appears as nutritionally unbalanced10 (illustration 1). Indeed, it can be inferred, with a 95% degree of confidence, that the median nutritional balance is located somewhere between BNI 70.40 and BNI 78.76, and the mean somewhere between BNI 69.21 and BNI 75.94.
|Illustration 1: Food's nutritional balance|
|Median CI95 lower||70.40||69.77||55.72||58.60||57.00|
|Median CI95 upper||78.76||79.07||63.54||65.76||64.66|
|Mean CI95 lower||69.21||66.12||55.81||59.05||57.31|
|Mean CI95 upper||75.94||73.60||62.10||64.81||63.48|
|SD CI95 lower||21.02||23.37||19.66||18.00||19.27|
|SD CI95 upper||25.76||28.65||24.10||22.06||23.63|
|(95% confidence interval's lower and upper bounds)|
Similar nutritional profiles appear when using other international recommended dietary intakes (RDIs), as well. Indeed, the correlation between indexes is very high (illustration 2). These correlations would occur by chance less than one in 1000, thus it can be inferred that they truly reflect an underlying relationship between international indexes.
|Illustration 2: Correlations between international RDIs|
|r / rho||BNI||WHO||US/CAN||AUS/NZ||UK|
|BNI CI95 lower||.968||.966||.960||.951|
|BNI CI95 upper||1.000||1.000||1.000||1.000|
|WHO CI95 lower||.962||.960||.923||.926|
|WHO CI95 upper||1.000||1.000||1.000||1.000|
|US/CAN CI95 lower||.976||.970||.955||.946|
|US/CAN CI95 upper||1.000||1.000||1.000||1.000|
|AUS/NZ CI95 lower||.968||.923||.957||.970|
|AUS/NZ CI95 upper||1.000||1.000||1.000||1.000|
|UK CI95 lower||.958||.930||.950||.970|
|UK CI95 upper||1.000||1.000||1.000||1.000|
|(95% confidence interval's lower and upper bounds)|
As part of a hypothetical diet in which all products contributed the same weight of chips, crisps and cravers, the resulting nutritional composition would improve somehow although it would still be unbalanced, with 95% confidence of it ranging somewhere between BNI 62.73 and BNI 71.46. However, differences in international RDIs become more apparent at this level, as this diet would "benefit" more under certain international RDIs than under others. For example, it would be less unbalanced under US', Australia's and UK's RDIs, than under WHO's RDIs.
|Illustration 3: Diet's nutritional balance|
|(Values per 100g; *carbs upper and lower bounds are reversed)|
In any case, the most visible differences between the lower and upper bounds of this confidence interval are the levels of fat and sodium that these products provide to the diet (illustrations 4 and 5).
Exploratory study for mapping the nutritional balance of chips, crisps and cravers in New Zealand.
Quantitative (fixed) in nature, including a mix of a descriptive design and a relational design.
Stratified sample of 188 chip, crisp and craver products, including generic and proprietary brands, diverse flavors and other relevant categories. The relevant data were collated from previous research after visually ascertaining they shared a similar nutritional profile (see Perezgonzalez, 2012a1_d4). Collating these related samples into one and performing further exploratory analyses will help gain an overall view of the nutritional balance of these foods without being too affected by the small numbers of some of the subsamples.
Variables of interest for this research were the following:
- Weight contribution of seven nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, sugar, fat, saturated fat, fiber and sodium) to 100g of the food product.
- The Balanced Nutrition Index (BNI) of each food product, as calculated from above variables.
- Aggregated information for the sample of products (foodBNI).
- Aggregated information about the individual nutrients for the simulation of hypothetical diets (dietBNI).
Materials and procedure
Relevant data were collected in person by purchasing the food products or by capturing such information from the producers' websites if this information was available and was deemed reliable. The data were then assessed using the Balanced Nutrition Index™ (BNI™) technology (see Perezgonzalez, 2012e5).
The sample was fairly representative of the population of chips, crisps and cravers in New Zealand. Furthermore, most of the products were either produced locally or imported from Australia. The results of this study may, thus, be generalizable to the following populations (in order of decreasing generalization power):
- New Zealand, nationwide.
- Internationally, if one assumes chip, crisp and craver products to be of approximately similar nutritional composition anywhere.
The results of this study may also be of interest to the following populations:
- food researchers
- food policy makers
Want to know more?
- WikiofScience - Chips, crisps & cravers (index)
- This WikiofScience page contains the full list of topics for chips, crisps and cravers, with links to the appropriate files.
- WikiofScience - Nutritional balance of chips, crisps and cravers (further knowledge)
- Two WikiofScience pages provide further introductory and descriptive information about the nutritional balance of chips, crisps and cravers.
- WikiofScience - Nutritional balance of foods
- This WikiofScience page collates information about several foods on a single page and provides useful links to the appropriate files.
Jose D PEREZGONZALEZ (2013). Massey University, Turitea Campus, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand. (JDPerezgonzalez).